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The woman agreed to the shoot, however pulled out after it emerged the actor had returned a positive result during the mandated fourteen-day industry disease screening.

On Dec. The male star at the center of the webcam claims is the cause of the moratorium. The news comes more than a year after Los Angeles County voters passed a ballot initiative that made using condoms in porn mandatory, however the rule was never enforced and later ruled to be unconstitutional.

There is no suggestion Daily is the star who tried to shoot a scene after his diagnosis. In online post, the coalition explained that performers underwent mandatory testing for sexually transmitted infections every two weeks and that the performers prefer this to using condoms.

In the shoots that can take several hours, they can cause abrasions known as condom rash which, paradoxically, can make it easier to transmit an infection if one does break.

Porn industry leaders have also said condoms were bad for business, leading to a decline in pornography sales. As in previous HIV outbreaks, the industry is currently testing the performer's on-and-off-screen sex partners to make sure that the virus hasn't spread.

It expects to have results early this week, according to the Free Speech Coalition. On Aug. Bay and Daily have since spoken out about unsafe industry practices.

There is no suggestion Daily is the actor who tried to shoot scenes after his diagnosis. Several other porn actors have also since tested positive.

On Sept. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Argos AO. HIV positive porn star tried to book a sex shoot AFTER being diagnosed as industry shuts for third time this year A male adult film star who tested positive for HIV - forcing the third filming shutdown of the porn industry this year - tried to solicit female co-star to have sex with him on a webcam after discovering the diagnosis Another moratorium has been placed on filming as all adult entertainment performers, along with their sexual partners, are screened for infection As the calls for condoms to become compulsory during sex shoots continues, porn advocates maintain entertainers prefer bi-monthly checks News follows porn star Cameron Bay going public in August about her HIV status By Daily Mail Reporter Published: BST, 9 December Updated: BST, 10 December e-mail View comments.

Share this article Share. Comments Share what you think. View all. More top stories. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search.

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Unmanned 'spy ship' powered by solar energy and designed to avoid detection is James Murdoch says he quit his father's media empire because it was 'legitimizing disinformation' and slams There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian.

Russian was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 26 December Large numbers of Russian speakers can also be found in other countries, such as Israel and Mongolia.

Russian is the largest native language in Europe , and the most geographically widespread language in Eurasia.

Russian is also the second-most widespread language on the Internet , after English. Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds.

Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels.

Russian is an East Slavic language of the wider Indo-European family. It is a descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus' , a loose conglomerate of East Slavic tribes from the late 9th to the mid 13th centuries.

From the point of view of spoken language , its closest relatives are Ukrainian , Belarusian , and Rusyn , [31] the other three languages in the East Slavic branch.

In many places in eastern and southern Ukraine and throughout Belarus , these languages are spoken interchangeably, and in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixtures such as Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine and Trasianka in Belarus.

An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect , although it vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian.

Also Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic influence on both languages, as well as because of later interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, Bulgarian grammar differs markedly from Russian.

The vocabulary mainly abstract and literary words , principles of word formations, and, to some extent, inflections and literary style of Russian have been also influenced by Church Slavonic , a developed and partly Russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church.

However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline.

In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with many different meanings.

For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language. Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek , Latin , Polish , Dutch , German , French , Italian , and English , [33] and to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic , Turkic , [34] [35] Persian , [36] [37] and Arabic , as well as Hebrew.

According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California , Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring approximately 1, hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency.

Feudal divisions and conflicts, as well as other obstacles to the exchange of goods and ideas that ancient Russian principalities have suffered from before and especially during the Mongol yoke, strengthened dialectical differences and for a while prevented the emergence of the standardized national language.

The formation of the unified and centralized Russian state in 15th and 16th centuries and the gradual re emergence of a common political, economic, and cultural space have created the need for a common standard language.

The initial impulse for the standardization came from the government bureaucracy for the lack of a reliable tool of communication in administrative, legal, and judicial affairs became an obvious practical problem.

The earliest attempts at standardizing Russian were made based on the so-called Moscow official or chancery language.

It arose in the beginning of the 18th century with the modernization reforms of the Russian state under the rule of Peter the Great , and developed from the Moscow Middle or Central Russian dialect substratum under the influence of some of the previous century's Russian chancery language.

Mikhail Lomonosov first compiled a normalizing grammar book in ; in the Russian Academy 's first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared.

During the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, a period known as the "Golden Age", the grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation of the Russian language was stabilized and standardized, and it became the nationwide literary language; meanwhile, Russia's world-famous literature flourished.

Until the 20th century, the language's spoken form was the language of only the upper noble classes and urban population, as Russian peasants from the countryside continued to speak in their own dialects.

By the midth century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the compulsory education system that was established by the Soviet government.

In , there were Therefore, the Russian language is the seventh-largest in the world by number of speakers , after English, Mandarin, Hindi-Urdu, Spanish, French, Arabic and Portuguese.

Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Education in Russian is still a popular choice for both Russian as a second language RSL and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics.

Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics. In Belarus , Russian is a second state language alongside Belarusian per the Constitution of Belarus.

In Estonia , Russian is spoken by In Latvia , Russian is officially considered a foreign language. In Lithuania , Russian is not official, but it still retains the function of a lingua franca.

In Moldova , Russian is considered to be the language of inter-ethnic communication under a Soviet-era law. According to the census in Russia , Russian language skills were indicated by million people In Ukraine , Russian is seen as a language of inter-ethnic communication, and a minority language, under the Constitution of Ukraine.

In the 20th century, Russian was a mandatory language taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact and in other countries that used to be satellites of the USSR.

Significant Russian-speaking groups also exist in Western Europe. These have been fed by several waves of immigrants since the beginning of the 20th century, each with its own flavor of language.

In Armenia , Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

In Azerbaijan , Russian has no official status, but is a lingua franca of the country. In China , Russian has no official status, but it is spoken by the small Russian communities in the northeastern Heilongjiang province.

In Georgia , Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

In Kazakhstan , Russian is not a state language, but according to article 7 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan its usage enjoys equal status to that of the Kazakh language in state and local administration.

In Kyrgyzstan , Russian is a co-official language per article 5 of the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan. In Tajikistan , Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication under the Constitution of Tajikistan and is permitted in official documentation.

In Turkmenistan , Russian lost its status as the official lingua franca in In Uzbekistan , Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication.

In , Russian was the most widely taught foreign language in Mongolia , [65] and was compulsory in Year 7 onward as a second foreign language in Russian is also spoken in Israel.

The number of native Russian-speaking Israelis numbers around 1. See also Russian language in Israel. Russian is also spoken as a second language by a small number of people in Afghanistan.

In Vietnam , Russian has been added in the elementary curriculum along with Chinese and Japanese and were named as "first foreign languages" for Vietnamese students to learn, on equal footing with English.

The language was first introduced in North America when Russian explorers voyaged into Alaska and claimed it for Russia during the 18th century.

Although most Russian colonists left after the United States bought the land in , a handful stayed and preserved the Russian language in this region to this day, although only a few elderly speakers of this unique dialect are left.

Sizable Russian-speaking communities also exist in North America , especially in large urban centers of the U. In a number of locations they issue their own newspapers, and live in ethnic enclaves especially the generation of immigrants who started arriving in the early s.

Afterward, the influx from the countries of the former Soviet Union changed the statistics somewhat, with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians immigrating along with some more Russian Jews and Central Asians.

According to the United States Census , in Russian was the primary language spoken in the homes of over , individuals living in the United States.

In the second half of the 20th century, Russian was the most popular foreign language in Cuba. Besides being taught at universities and schools, there were also educational programs on the radio and TV.

However, starting January the Cuban television opens an educational program devoted to the Russian language.

This project is fully entitled to be called an anticipated one, because the Russian — Cuban collaboration is a strategic direction actively developed as more and more young people are interested in the Russian language, the Education navigator informs.

There is also the Russian language department, where students can scrutinize e-books without internet connection. Additional courses on the Russian language are open at two schools of the Cuban capital city.

Russian is one of the official languages or has similar status and interpretation must be provided into Russian of the following:.

The Russian language is also one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station — NASA astronauts who serve alongside Russian cosmonauts usually take Russian language courses.

This practice goes back to the Apollo-Soyuz mission, which first flew in In March it was announced that Russian is now the second-most used language on the Internet after English.

People use the Russian language on 5. Russian is used not only on The websites of former Soviet Union nations also use high levels of Russian: However, Russian is the sixth-most used language on the top 1, sites, behind English , Chinese , French , German , and Japanese.

Russian is a rather homogeneous language, in terms of dialectal variation, due to the early political centralization under Moscow's rule, compulsory education, mass migration from rural to urban areas in the 20th century, as well as other factors.

The standard language is used in written and spoken form almost everywhere in the country, from Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the East, the enormous distance between notwithstanding.

Despite leveling after , especially in matters of vocabulary and phonetics, a number of dialects still exist in Russia. Some linguists divide the dialects of Russian into two primary regional groupings, "Northern" and "Southern", with Moscow lying on the zone of transition between the two.

Others divide the language into three groupings, Northern , Central or Middle , and Southern , with Moscow lying in the Central region.

Dialectology within Russia recognizes dozens of smaller-scale variants. The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary, and grammar.

Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language. Among the first to study Russian dialects was Lomonosov in the 18th century.

In the 19th, Vladimir Dal compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary. Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the 20th century.

Russian is written using a Cyrillic alphabet. The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. The following table gives their upper case forms, along with IPA values for each letter's typical sound:.

While these older letters have been abandoned at one time or another, they may be used in this and related articles. Because of many technical restrictions in computing and also because of the unavailability of Cyrillic keyboards abroad, Russian is often transliterated using the Latin alphabet.

Once commonly used by the majority of those living outside Russia, transliteration is being used less frequently by Russian-speaking typists in favor of the extension of Unicode character encoding , which fully incorporates the Russian alphabet.

The Russian alphabet has many systems of character encoding. KOI8-R was designed by the Soviet government and was intended to serve as the standard encoding.

This encoding was and still is widely used in UNIX-like operating systems. All the obsolete 8-bit encodings are rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF A number of encoding conversion applications were developed.

In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode and thus UTF-8 encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet which is very similar to the Greek alphabet , as well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets.

The current spelling follows the major reform of , and the final codification of An update proposed in the late s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted.

The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek , was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models. Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners.

The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic ; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year The language possesses five vowels or six, under the St.

Petersburg Phonological School , which are written with different letters depending on whether the preceding consonant is palatalized.

The consonants typically come in plain vs. The hard consonants are often velarized , especially before front vowels, as in Irish and Marshallese.

The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa.

See also: vowel reduction in Russian. The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex, with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to four consecutive sounds.

Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus vowel and C for each consonant, the maximal structure can be described as follows:.

However, Russian has a constraint on syllabification such that syllables cannot span multiple morphemes. Clusters of four consonants are not very common, especially within a morpheme.

Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of its consonants. Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant.

Russian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic - inflectional structure, although considerable levelling has taken place.

Russian grammar encompasses:. The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one but continues to preserve characteristic forms. The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features, [83] some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language.

The Church Slavonic language not to be confused with Old Church Slavonic which was introduced during the Christianization of the Kievan Rus' in the 10th century was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience.

Firstly with the newly conquered southwestern regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania , later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde , for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy.

In terms of actual grammar, there are three tenses in Russian - past, present, and future - and each verb has two aspects perfective and imperfective.

Russian nouns each have a gender - either feminine, masculine, or neuter, indicated by spelling at the end of the word. Words change depending on both their gender and function in the sentence.

Russian has six cases : Nominative for the subject of the sentence , Accusative for direct objects , Dative for indirect objects , Genitive to indicate possession , Instrumental to indicate 'with' or 'by means of' , and Prepositional used after a preposition.

Verbs of motion in Russian - such as 'go', 'walk', 'run', 'swim', and 'fly' - use the imperfective or perfective form to indicate a single or return trip, and also use a multitude of prefixes to add more meaning to the verb.

See History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian. The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian , are as follows: [84] [85].

The history of the Russian language may be divided into the following periods: [87]. Judging by the historical records, by approximately AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia , Ukraine , and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavs , speaking a closely related group of dialects.

The political unification of this region into Kievan Rus' in about , from which modern Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus trace their origins, established Old East Slavic as a literary and commercial language.

It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language.

Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well.

Dialectal differentiation accelerated after the breakup of Kievan Rus' in approximately On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian.

They became distinct since the 13th century, i. The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic , which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age , when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts.

Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts.

Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By , a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes.

Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e. Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since relatively few words used by Pushkin have become archaic or changed meaning.

The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific, and technological matters especially cosmonautics , gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the midth century.

During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice. Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian, although it was declared the official language only in The Russian language in the world declined after due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and decrease in the number of Russians in the world and diminution of the total population in Russia where Russian is an official language , however this has since been reversed.

Arefyev published a new study "Russian language at the turn of the 20thst centuries", in which he confirmed his conclusion about the trend of weakening of the Russian language after the Soviet Union's collapse in various regions of the world findings published in in the journal " Demoskop Weekly ".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Rusyn language. East Slavic language. Language family. Old East Slavic.

Writing system. Areas where Russian is the majority language medium blue or a minority language light blue. Main article: Moscovian dialect.

Main article: Geographical distribution of Russian speakers. See also: Russian language in the United States.

See also: Russophone , List of official languages by institution , and Internet in Russian. Main articles: Russian dialects and Moscow dialect.

Arkhangelsk dialect. Olonets dialect. Novgorod dialect. Viatka dialect. Vladimir dialect. Moscow dialect.

Tver dialect. Orel Don dialect. Ryazan dialect. Tula dialect. Smolensk dialect. Northern Russian dialect with Belarusian influences.

Sloboda and Steppe dialects of Ukrainian. Steppe dialect of Ukrainian with Russian influences. Main articles: Russian alphabet and Russian Braille.

Further information: Romanization of Russian and Informal romanizations of Russian. Main article: Russian orthography.

Main article: Russian phonology.

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